Referencia para sequencia dos otemaes ou praticas de cha. Comecamos com o bonryaku.
SHOKYUU BEGINNER STUDENT CERTIFICATION1. NYUMON LICENSE enter/gate
A certificate granting the student permission to begin the formal study of Chado with the Urasenke iemoto (hereditary head master)
The teaching technique whereby certain "kata," forms for executing actions common to many tea procedures, are practiced out of the context of individual temae.
1. Bonryaku Temae tray/abbreviated/procedure for preparing tea before a guest
Devised by the 13th iemoto, Ennosai, this temae, also called Ryakubon, employs the kata learned in warigeiko to prepare thin tea (usucha). The "mountain path" (yamamichi) tray is used to hold utensils and prepare tea.
2. Usucha Hirademae thin tea/basic/tea procedure
The procedure of preparing individual whisked bowls of powdered thin tea using a cold-water jar (mizusashi), a kettle (kama), a ladle (hishaku), and a lid rest (futaoki), in addition to the basic utensils. This temae is performed either by carrying in all the utensils, referred to as a hakobi temae, or by placing some of the utensils on a shelf, a tana temae.
3. Koicha Hirademae thick tea/basic/tea procedure
The procedure for preparing a bowl of thick tea, which is shared among the guests and is the highlight of a full-length tea gathering (chaji). The tea is prepared by adding less water and kneading rather than whisking it into a smooth, velvety consistency. It is performed as a hakobi or tana temae.
4. Shozumi Hirademae first/charcoal/procedure
The procedure of arranging unlit charcoal pieces around pilot pieces (shitabi) during the first half of a full-length tea gathering (chaji). This procedure is practiced as a hakobi or tana temae.
5. Gozumi Hirademae last/charcoal/procedure
The procedure of repairing the fire for the latter half of a chaji. This procedure is practiced as a hakobi or tana temae.
2. KONARAI LICENSE specific practices
This certificate gives permission to study the sixteen basic furo and ro season temae standardized in their present form by the 11th iemoto, Gengensai. Divided into two groups, these temae are essential for developing the ability to adapt creatively and spontaneously to whatever circumstance may arise (hataraki). The first eight are Kinindate, Kininkiyotsugu, Chairekazari, Chawankazari, Chashakukazari, Chasenkazari, Nagao chaire, and Kasanejawan. Of these, Kinindate and Kininkiyotsugu may be performed as usucha and koicha temae. The others are exclusively koicha temae. The last eight are Tsutsumibukusa, Tsubokazari, Sumishomo, Hanashomo, Irekodate, Bonkogo, Jikukazari, and Otsubukuro. Of these, Tsutsumibukusa and Otsubukuro are koicha temae, Irekodate is an usucha temae, and the remaining do not involve the preparation of tea.
1 Kinindate nobleman/tea procedure
2 Kininkiyotsugu nobleman/attendant
These temae emphasize the rank of a noble guest and his or her attendant if present.
3 Chairekazari tea caddy/display
4 Chawankazari tea bowl/display
5 Chashakukazari tea scoop/display
6 Chasenkazari tea whisk/display
These procedures feature certain utensils used in the preparation of thick tea, which have emotional or historical significance. The first three kazari feature a utensil, which will be displayed in the tokonoma at the beginning half of the tea gathering. Chasenkazari on the other hand draws attention to a utilitarian object such as the mizusashi, (not the chasen which its name implies) so the object in question is not placed in the alcove.
7 Nagao chaire long cord/tea caddy
8 Otsubukuro Otsu Province/bag
9 Tsutsumibukusa wrapped/silk cloth
These three thick tea temae feature the use of different types of containers and their wrappings. Nagao is a procedure using a wide-mouth chaire enclosed in a shifuku (silk bag), which has a particularly long cord. Otsubukuro is the temae that employs a silk crepe bag shaped like one once used to carry rice in Otsu province. This bag is tied around a black-lacquered, medium-sized, jujube-shaped container (shinnuri/chu/natsume). Like the Otsubukuro temae, Tsutsumibukusa features the same high quality container. In this procedure the natsume is wrapped in the host's own fukusa.
10 Kasanejawan stacked/bowls
11 Irekodate nested bowl/procedure
Kasanejawan and Irekodate are temae in which allowances are made for the guests and the host respectively. The student learns Kasanejawan in order to prepare two bowls of thick tea when there are more than five guests present. Irekodate is a thin tea procedure in which most of the utensils are displayed on a tana reducing the number of trips in and out of the room.
12 Bonkogo tray/incense container
13 Sumishomo charcoal/to call upon
These two temae relate to the charcoal procedures rather than to the actual preparation of tea. Bonkogo features the incense container in much the same way as the kazarimono (featured object temae) highlights other utensils of historical or emotional significance. The incense container, (kogo), is placed on a tray to designate its historical importance rather than in the charcoal basket as is customary. Sumishomo involves a request from the host to a skilled guest for help in laying the charcoal. To be asked is a great compliment to one's skill as a tea person. A host will ask a guest more skilled than himself to arrange the charcoal either for shozumi (in the furo or ro season) or gozumi (in the ro season).
14 Hanashomo flowers/to call upon
Like sumishomo, this procedure is practiced for similar reasons. The host will ask the guest to arrange the flowers in the container because the guest may be more experienced at chabana (tea flowers) than the host, or may be the donor of the flower vase or the flowers to be used.
15 Tsubokazari tealeaf storage jar/display
16 Jikukazari scroll/display
These two procedures bring attention to utensils that may have historical or emotional significance to the host. Tsubokazari is a procedure that draws attention to the traditional production method and consumption of the year's tea crop. The host has left his tea jar with the grower prior to harvesting tea in April, and the leaves are allowed to mellow in the sealed container until November. In autumn, the grower returns the jar that contains a year's supply of usucha and koicha. The host will hold a gathering in which the paper seal of the wooden plug will be cut and the new tea ground and served. At the beginning of this gathering the guests have a chance to admire the jar and the beautiful netting which protects it. Jikukazari is a procedure that features the display of an especially rare or famous scroll. The scroll is displayed in the tokonoma prior to the guests' entrance into the tearoom. In the presence of the guests the scroll is unrolled and displayed briefly before putting it away again. This temae draws attention to the careful curatorship of fragile utensils inherent to the practice of tea.
3. CHABAKO LICENSE box for tea utensils
Unohana deutzia/blossom (summer) + Facil
Tsuki moon (fall) + dificil
Yuki snow (winter) - apreciando a neve
Este otemae nao usa bandeja.
Hana flower (spring)
The two final procedures in the chabako series created by Tantansai, the 14th iemoto, use different containers than the chabako just described.
Wakeidate - harmony and respect/procedure
Wakeidate was created for the retired iemoto Hounsai when he went to 2 World War. At the time it was called by another name indicating it was a chabako temae for the battlefield. Today its name has been changed to mean, "making tea with harmony and respect."
This temae uses two Chawan, which are stacked on top of each other inside the Chabako.
When placing out the tea bowl for the guests it is not placed on top of a Kobukusa as in the other Chabako
Shikishidate square poem board/procedure
Shikishidate is the final temae in this series and was created to make use of a letterbox ordered by Ennosai, the 13th iemoto. Shikishi are square poem boards on which calligraphy is written. All the utensils are placed on square pieces of board or fabric to recall the proportions of these cards.
TOKUSHU TEMAE special/procedures
These special temae do not fall into the Konarai license category but are studied adjunctly. They may provide a seasonal reference with regard to utensils or may be a variation of standard temae determined by the orientation of the tearoom or placement of the hearth.
Gengensai, the 11th iemoto, created the first of these procedures, ryureidana. The host and guests who seated on stools. A variety of tea making tables has been designed. The most formal is the ryureidana, created by Gengensai in 1872, which can be used to perform the four chaji temae, usucha, koicha, shozumi, and gozumi. Other tables, including the misonodana, may only be used for the preparation of usucha.
Araijakin rinse/small linen cloth
These usucha temae illustrate Rikyu's maxim to suggest warmth in winter and coolness in summer. The tsutsujawan is a tall cylindrical bowl that retains the heat of the tea and is used in January and February, the two coldest months of the year. Special handling of the chakin is required because of the narrowness of the bowl. The araijakin temae is practiced in July and August, the two hottest months of the year, and features a wide shallow bowl filled with cold water and an unfolded chakin, along with the chasen and chashaku. The chakin is wrung out before the guests and the cold water emptied into the wastewater container, evoking coolness.
Habuta leaf-lid (mizusashi)
Obuta large-lid (mizusashi)
Waributa hinged-lid (mizusashi)
These three tea procedures featuring mizusashi focus attention on coolness and are considered seasonal temae best performed in July and August. The habuta temae, created by Gengensai, features a lacquered cylindrical mizusashi covered with a fresh green leaf. The leaf lid is removed, folded, and discarded during the temae that makes this procedure appropriate for usucha only. Obuta and waributa temae feature large wide-mouthed mizusashi with lids that require special handling. This type of mizusashi is displayed throughout the tea gathering to suggest coolness through the expanse of the water's surface, and to eliminate the awkwardness of carrying it back and forth.
Tsurube mizusashi well-bucket/cold water jar
Meisuidate famous water/procedure
These procedures feature the use of a cedar mizusashi in the shape of a square well bucket. This utensil draws our attention to the preciousness of water, its source, quality, and the historical associations of preparing tea with water drawn from famous wells. The tsurube mizusashi may be used in the summer months or when water is drawn in the early hours of the first day of the solar New Year for the obukucha (great happiness tea) gathering at Konnichian. When water from a famous well is drawn for tea the host may decorate the mizusashi with shimenawa (sacred Shinto rope) for the meisuidate koicha temae.
Tsuzukiusucha continue through/thin tea
This temae features a koicha temae immediately followed by the preparation of usucha without stopping to repair the charcoal fire (gozumi). This enables the host or guests at a chaji to adjust to time constraints as may be required.
Sukigigama small rectangular wooden blocks/kettle
These three procedures highlight the changeover from the brazier and hearth seasons through the placement of the summer brazier and the use and handling of special winter kettles. In October, the brazier is placed in the center of the utensil mat (nakaoki) to anticipate the coming of winter and the opening of the sunken hearth. The mizusashi is placed to the left of the brazier so that the host and guest may share the warmth of the fire. In March, the tsurigama kettle, smaller than the large winter kettle, is suspended by a chain or pole over the hearth. Smaller sized charcoal is used to boil the water and warm the room as the warmer furo season approaches. In April, the sukigigama replaces the tsurigama. Small, wooden blocks that protect the delicate masonry of the hearth support it. The fire, now barely visible beneath the wide flanged kettle, functions to heat the water but not the room. A sukigigama may also be used with a brazier in the summer months to suggest coolness by blocking the view of the fire from the guests.
Hachiro Eight placements of the hearth
One feature of tearoom design is the orientation of the guest's seat with respect to the host. In an orthodox or conventional room (hongatte) the guest is seated to the host's right. When this is reversed and the guest is seated to the host's left (gyakugatte), certain temae actions are reversed. All temae in the nyumon, konarai, and tokushu categories described thus far are hongatte, yojohangiri, and performed in a room 4.5 mats or larger (hiroma). However, there are three other placements of the hearth --daimegiri, sumiro, mukogiri -- and they are usually found in rooms smaller than 4.5 mats (koma).
Yojohangiri 4.5 mat/placement of the 42.2 cm. square hearth
Daimegiri 3/4-length mat/placement of the 42.2 cm. square hearth
Sumiro corner/placement of the 42.2 cm. square hearth
Mukogiri opposite the corner/placement of the 42.2 cm. square hearth
The position of the 4.5 mat hearth is in the corner of the mat adjacent to lower half of the full-length host's mat and the kinindatami. The daimegiri is set in the tatami mat adjacent host's mat where the host's mat (temaeza) has been determined to be a 3/4-length mat. The temaeza may actually be reduced in size by the dimensions of the daisu table, or may be a full-length mat (marudatami) in a room that does not have a fumikomi tatami (stepping in mat). The sumiro hearth is cut in the upper corner of a full-length host's mat next to the corner of the room. The mukogiri hearth is cut in the upper corner of a full-length host's mat away from the corner and towards the guest. The four hearth cuts may be oriented in both hongatte and gyakugatte rooms giving us a total of eight basic hearth positions (hachiro). When using the daimegiri, sumiro, or mukogiri, the four standard chaji temae, usucha, koicha, shozumi, gozumi, are performed with variations in the placement of utensils as required by the location of the hearth and orientation of the room.
Standardized in the 19th c. by Gengensai, the 11th iemoto, the 54.5-cm. square dairo is used in February, the coldest month of the year in Kyoto, to provide greater warmth for the adjacent Totsutotsusai tearoom, Urasenke's main teaching room. The four standard chaji temae -- usucha, koicha, shozumi, and gozumi -- are performed gyakugatte with variations to accommodate the large size of the hearth.
Gyakugatte reverse/orientation (of the room)
The four chaji temae, usucha, koicha, shozumi, gozumi, may be presented in a gyakugatte room where the guest is seated to the host's left.
Mukogiri Gyakugatte Uchi Nagashi side opposite the corner/cut/reverse orientation/(utensils) flowing onto (the host's mat)
Mukogiri Gyakugatte Soto Nagashi side opposite the corner/cut/ reverse orientation/(utensils) flowing beyond (the host's mat)
Furo Nagashidate furo season/ (utensils) flowing (onto the adjacent mat)
These three usucha temae are performed for intimate guests. The regular furo season alignment of the host is shifted to the ro season alignment, to create a feeling of closeness. The two Mukogiri Gyakugatte Nagashidate temae are much older than the Furo Nagashidate temae that was created by Ennosai, the 13th iemoto.
SHICHI JISHIKI seven/tea ensemble exercisesThe group ensemble exercises called shichijishiki are comprised of 'seven exercises' or 'procedures.' These procedures were created in the 18th c. by the 7th iemoto of Omotesenke, Joshinsai Tennen Sosa (1706-1751), his younger brother the 8th iemoto of Urasenke, Yugensai Itto Soshitsu (1719-1771), their Zen master the abbot of Daitokuji, Mugaku Soen (1721-1791), and several of their closest disciples and intimates. The 'Seven Exercises' are kagetsu, shaza, mawarizumi, mawaribana, chakabuki, ichi ni san, and kazucha. Within Kagetsu are fourteen procedures: chabakotsuki kagetsu, hirakagestu, jikutsuki kagetsu, kininkiyotsugu kagetsu, kininkiyotsugu koichatsuki kagetsu, kotsuki kagetsu, koichatsuki kagetsu, tsubotsuki kagetsu, musubibukusa kagetsu, nagekomi kagetsu, mugon nagekomi kagetsu, satsubakotsuki kagestu, sumitsuki kagetsu, and yojohan kagetsu.
In recent times, it has become the custom at Urasenke for each succeeding iemoto to create a shiki. Thus today there are actually twenty-two shiki practiced at Urasenke. The later creations are Hanayose (this, however, is not officially included as a shichijishiki), Sen'yu (11th iemoto, Gengensai), Setsugeka (11th iemoto, Gengensai), Homa (12th iemoto, Yumyosai), Sanyu (13th iemoto, Ennosai), and Showa (14th iemoto, Tantansai).
CHUUKYUU INTERMEDIATE STUDENT CERTIFICATIONSHIKADEN four/verbal transmissions or four denmono
Once the student has completed the Konarai level, he or she normally requests permission to study Shikaden. This category introduces the first four orally transmitted temae, Satsubako, Karamono, Daitenmoku, and Bondate, performed in the ro and furo seasons, standardized in their present form by Gengensai, the 11th iemoto.
1. SATSUBAKO TEMAE and LICENSE tea/box
2. KARAMONO TEMAE and LICENSE historical Chinese tea jar; produced in the Southern-Song and Yuan dynasties
3. DAITENMOKU TEMAE and LICENSE stand/tea bowl from Temmoku Mountain (Tienmu-shan, Zhejiang Province; Jian or Jizhou ware produced in the Song, Southern-Song, Yuan dynasties
4. BONDATE TEMAE and LICENSE historical Chinese tea jar/on a tray; tea jar produced in the Southern-Song and Yuan dynasties, presented on a tray of similar age
These three temae feature the deferential handling and presentation of karamono (historical Chinese) utensils that were held in high esteem since the earliest days of chanoyu. All four temae are based on the classical rules concerning the use of the daisu display stand.
RANGAI additional procedure
1. WAKIN TEMAE and LICENSE Japanese/fabric
Created by Gengensai, the 11th iemoto, this procedure features a piece of cloth (wakin) that once belonged to Emperor Kokaku (1780-1817). Gengensai made a cloth bag (shifuku) for a paulownia wood tea container (nakatsuki) and kobukusa from the material and displayed them together. Tantansai altered the presentation by substituting an unlacquered nakatsuki container of mulberry wood. Chabako temae are placed within this category.
JOUKYUU UPPER LEVEL STUDENT AND 4TH-DEGREE INSTRUCTOR
1. GYO-NO-GYO DAISU TEMAE and LICENSE
This license and temae procedure also called "midare," meaning unmatched, uses the unlacquered daisu table used together with the daitenmoku bowl and karamono chaire which are placed on a large tray inlaid with a Daoist design of eight trigrams (hakke bon).
2. DAIEN-NO-SO TEMAE and LICENSE
Ennosai, the 13th iemoto, created the Daien-no-so and Daien-no-shin temae using a Daien bon tray. Daien-no-so features both a karamono chaire of a meibutsu category (renowned object) and a Japanese chaire placed on a large tray (Enso bon), and a daitenmoku bowl. No display stand is used.
3. HIKITSUGI LICENSE
This license grants permission to teach and issue certificates from Nyumon through Gyo-no-gyo temae.
KOUSHI 3RD-DEGREE INSTRUCTOR1. SHIN-NO-GYO DAISU TEMAE and LICENSE
This temae embodies the fundamentals of the most advanced stage of chanoyu. It employs a formal black lacquered daisu, a matching set of bronze utensils (kaigu), and a karamono chaire and its companion tray, and a daitenmoku bowl. The bowl and jar, with its companion tray, are of the omeibutsu category of high-ranking renowned tea objects, identified with the periods of tea history before the time of Sen Rikyu.
2. DAIEN-NO-SHIN TEMAE and LICENSE
This temae uses a formal daisu, a daitenmoku bowl, a karamono chaire (omeibutsu category), and a Daien tray.
3. SEIHIKITSUGI LICENSE
This license grants permission to teach and issue certificates through Daien-no-so, Hikitsugi, and Shin-no-gyo.
SENNIN KOUSHI 2ND-DEGREE INSTRUCTOR1. CHAMEI artistic name
An artistic name bestowed by the iemoto through one's teacher. Within the Urasenke tradition, an artistic name is comprised of two Chinese characters. A character taken from one’s given name follows the prefix “so” meaning mastery. One must be at least thirty years old to apply for and receive a chamei.
2. MONKYO permission to wear the Urasenke crest
This certificate is applied for along with the chamei granting permission to wear the Urasenke tsubo-tsubo crest on one's kimono.
JUNKYOJU 1ST-DEGREE INSTRUCTOR
KYOJU EMERITUS INSTRUCTORThis certificate is presented by the Iemoto.
Adapted from "Chanoyu: an Anthropological Approach to Tea," Jennifer Anderson, 1985, Stanford University, chapter 5; An Introduction to Japanese Tea Ritual, State University of New York Press, 1991, Temae Appendix p. 227-237; "The Urasenke Tradition of Tea, Essential Information for Beginning Students," Urasenke Foundation, International Division, 2000; and Urasenke Chado Kyoka, volumes 1-16, Tankosha Publishing Company.
Urasenke Foundation Seattle Branch
URASENKE LICENSES AND CURRICULUM Transmitting the living art of Chado, the Way of Tea, to affirm our shared humanity through harmony, respect, purity and tranquility.